A microscope is an instrument used to see enlarged images of very small objects. Microsoft allows observing a close view of miniature structures at a convenient view scale for users on examination and analysis purposes. A microscope may provide a static image or a dynamic image with a conventional optical instrument. The microscope has been used in different sectors to observe very small particles closely. In this article, we are going to give you a brief description of various types of microscopes.
Types of microscope indicated according to working method or construction or viewing aspects of a sample etc. In general, most microscopes have a set of lenses and an eyepiece lens which allows them to see an enlarged view of the object. Again, a camera also be can be added to many microscopes to take the enlarged picture of the object to analyze later. Generally, on a teaching type microscope, there have two sets of eyepieces to let another person can see the analyzed view.
The power of the microscope is referred to as the number of times that an object examined appears to be enlarged and is a dimensionless ratio. This magnifying power is calculated in the form of 1Ox. This 10x refers to 10 & the x is the algebraic symbol and the main form is “ten times”. The microscope’s resolution is the measurement of the smallest details of any object that can be observed. And, the microscope’s resolution is expressed in a linear unit like a micrometer (µm).
A microscope is an experimental instrument that is used to make an enlarged image of a small object, which offers a detailed view of a very small object or component even which is too small to be seen on open eyes. The most common type of microscope is an optical microscope that used light to focus through lenses.
The earliest Microscope das have been invented by Hans Janssen and his son named Zacharias Janssen who was a Dutch optician and by Hans Lippershey who was a Dutch instrument maker (also the inventor of a telescope) about 1590.
The word microscope comes from the Latin word Microscopium. Microscopium was derived from the Greek word “mikros”, which means “small” and “skopein” means “to look at”.
Different Types of Microscope
For the time being, microscope performance and technology developed a lot. Nowadays, there are several types of microscopes used for different purposes. In general, there are four most popular types of microscopes – a. Compound type b. The Stereomicroscope c. The Digital microscope d. The Pocket or handheld microscope.
Some types of microscopes are used for biological application and research purposes, which are best for classroom or personal purpose use. Other types of microscopes are highly developed for highly efficient work with existing development.
A brief discussion of different types of microscopes are given below:
The Compound Light Microscope
The compound light microscope is a microscope that has more than one lens and also has its light source to enlarge the subject being viewed. The common type of microscope is a compound light microscope. Generally, this type of microscope has two eyepieces. There are ocular lances in the binocular eyepiece and objective lances stay in a rotating nosepiece closer to the specimen. But sometimes there founds one ocular lens.
The Compound light type microscope was first invented by Zacharias Jansen back in 1595. During this period, the microscope was used collapsing tubes to build and its magnifications were up to 9x. But, cause of the improvement of modern technology – today’s microscope magnification improves a lot, like the strongest compound microscope, has around 1000 to 2000x magnifying power.
The compound light microscope has its light source on its base, that’s why the compound light microscope is also called the bright field microscope. On the bright field microscope, the specimen is lit from below and viewed from above. The sample’s contrast comes from its absorption of light.
- Magnification: The magnification of the microscope is indicated as the ability to enlarge the image view. When the amount of specimen details increases enough to notice, we can call it a good image. The magnification power of a microscope is calculated in the form of 10x when viewing an image with a compound light microscope. If the eyepiece’s magnification power is 10x and the objective lens has 40x then it will produce a total magnification of 400x. That means with the naked eye, you can view the object at a magnification 400 times larger and you will see microscopic details.
- Resolution: The resolution of the microscope is also called the resolving power of a microscope which is necessary to see the specific details of the object compared with the image. The resolution power of the microscope helps to measure the valuable separation of images which are close together. The wavelength of light is used to control the resolution of the microscope.
- Working distance: The working distance is related to magnification. If you are at low magnification, the working distance is longer. And, if you increase the magnification power, the working distance will shorter.
- Benefits of using the compound light microscope: The compound light microscope is the most common type of microscope. It is simple and convenient, and that’s the biggest benefit of the compound light microscope. It is comparatively small, easy to use, and simple to store. It uses its light which increases its effectiveness. The compound light microscopes can show the details of the sample by using multiple lenses, and comparatively inexpensive.
The Stereo Microscope
The stereo microscope is also called a dissecting microscope. These types of microscopes provides two different angel optical paths which allow us to see the image three-dimensionally under the lenses. This type of microscope gives the choice of purchasing the fixed and even zoom.
The stereo microscope has low magnification power – generally between 10x to 200x. this type of microscope uses to look at surfaces, microsurgery, inspecting circuit boards, watchmaking, etc.
The stereotype microscope is a very useful instrument to observe the ability to manipulate the specimen, working with a specific object, to view with a different angle to ensure precision.
The stereo microscope is designed based on two basic groups like Greenough and Common main objective. And, two basic configurations like Fixed magnification and variable zoom.
Two basic groups
- Greenough design: The Greenough stereo microscope is the oldest type of the two. It is used in the production process of soldering work on a miniature scale, and also on biological work. It is very useful and easy to maintain. Horatio S. Greenough first designed the use of two eye tubes that have a slightly different view angle and creates a three-dimensional effect. These twin body eye tubes have their objective and ocular lens. The Greenough design provides the advantage of allowing the selection of high apertures. And, the disadvantage is known as the keystone effect. This is a slight tilt in the focal plane due to the two lenses viewing the same image at a slight angle.
- The common main objective design: The Common Main objective design is simply known as CMO. This type of microscope is used for research and development purposes. It has high resolution and optical accessories available. This type of microscope has a large, single objective lens shared by a pair of ocular channels. This objective design eliminates the image tilting in the focal plane. It creates an optical anomaly which makes the viewed object appear to elevate in the center.
Two basic configurations
- Stereo fixed microscope: the fixed magnification lens uses on this type of microscope. This fixed magnification uses two objective lenses. Those refer to the optical element gathering and focusing the light rays on the image.
- Stereo zoom microscope: the stereo zoom microscope is very popular cause of its effective function. You can zoom in or out likely to increase and decreases the magnification. You can easily manipulate the range of magnification. By changing the eyepiece, you can manipulate the available range.
The Digital Microscope
With the help of modern technology, the microscope develops a lot. The digital microscope was first invented in Japan in 1985. On this type of microscope, computer power is used to view details of objects whose are impossible to see with the naked eyes.
But now in the 21st century, the digital microscope enters an amazing level. We can see very specific details of any object with an eyepiece or even without an eyepiece. It connects to the computer via USB cable, you can see a detailed observation. This USB cable works much like a connecting keyboard, mouse or printer, or other. The specific computer software allows us to show display the detailed specimen of an object on a computer monitor and even you can have a printed copy. Moving images can also be recorded on computer memory, and single steady images can capture. It increases the efficiency of work.
- Digital monitor: the digital microscope shows the microscopic result on a digital monitor. By using CCD sensors & a charged coupling device, a digital microscope shows the microscopic result on the digital monitor. The digital monitor has a light-sensitive pixel to capture images. This may allow 2d or even 3d image results.
- Image resolution: the digital microscope can achieve a magnification of up to 1000x and also capable of almost all features of the compound light microscope. The image quality might be great details and can easily compare to another microscopic image. You can increase the image resolution of the microscopic image and enlarge the size of the image. You can save the microscopic image and also view the real-time footage.
- Digital computer software: the digital microscope needs specific digital computer software to shows the result on the monitor. The digital computer software allows the CCD sensor to function and captured the microscopic image and let them view on the display monitor. Some software allows transferring the image with the internet in real-time so that other members can easily cooperate. This process increases efficiency and saves time and improves research facility and development.
The Pocket Microscope
The pocket microscope is very effective and user-friendly. The pocket microscope might be tiny in size but it is impressively effective.
The pocket microscope uses students, children, teachers, researchers during indoor or outdoor activities. This is very useful for outdoor object examination in great detail. There are several sizes of microscope like small, durable, portable or even some of this may as small as an ink pen which also able to provide the great details of the object.
Many of these pocket microscopes do not need batteries and uses natural light rays to operate.
- Magnification: the pocket microscope and pen-sized microscope provides 25x to 100x magnification which also has batteries facility and LED light. This type of microscope also has an adjustable focus facility.
- Application: the pocket microscope has tiny size and for this site, it’s user-friendly. They can be used anywhere because of their size including classroom, outside research, etc. Most of the pocket microscope contains no moving part and they are perfect for children and students to explore the hidden world around them. This type of microscope also uses for emergency medical applications, field studies by scientists and hobbyists, emergency room practicians.
The Electron Microscope
The electron microscope (EM) is a powerful microscope that uses for specific research purposes to view a specimen at nanometer size. The transmission electron microscope is the first type of EM. The transmission electron microscope is a popular choice for nanotechnologies like semiconductor analysis and production.
The Scanning Probe Microscope
The scanning probe microscope is used in academic and industrial purposes sectors like physics, biology, and chemistry. It is a popular analysis tool for research and development. Images are highly magnified and observed the three-dimensional specimen in real-time.
The microscope is a popular and important instrument that helps to see a very close view of objects who are unable to see with naked eyes. This useful instrument uses by researchers, medical analysis, students, and also children which depends on their resources and purpose of work. Now, we hope that you know all about different types of microscopes and their whereabouts. You can know about the best telescopes that you can buy by reading this amazing informative article.