Quantum computer is a new inventory and hope for the people who are in the engineering and technology field. Because this computer has the fastest speed and capacity of doing complex calculations. The programmers or developers are always looking for such computers. So it’s like a dream comes true for them.
But there are many difficulties in making these computers. That’s why it is taking time in its construction. Though it’s mainly for higher-level people, we also need to know it thoroughly. Because in the future, this one is going to be in demand and we may need to use it. So it is quite obvious to know the working theory of it thoroughly.
Here you will get the whole information regarding quantum computer.
What is a Quantum Computer?
A Quantum computer is a special type of computer, different from our classical computer, which uses the quantum computing phenomenon to perform computation. So the one which uses quantum computing such as entanglement, superposition, etc. for working purpose is known as a quantum computer.
This type of computer can easily beat the supercomputer because of its working mechanism based on quantum physics. As the quantum computer uses qubit to perform its computation, it can easily outperform than any classical computer, even the supercomputer.
Laptops, desktops, phones, calculators, all are the classical computer, which we use in our day to day life, uses bits to encode its necessary information. The bit comes from the word binary. It means either 1 or 0. So classical computers use these 0s or 1s to compute anything. But the quantum computer uses qubits to perform any kind of work. Qubit comes from a quantum bit.
Qubit is the basic memory unit of a quantum computer. Qubit is a quantum system containing two levels which can be written in 0 and 1. Though a qubit is analogous to a classical bit, it can be in state 0 0r 1 or even in 01 at the same time.
Electron’s spin and the orientation of photons are the origins of the qubit. The spins or orientation can be in different forms at the same time. This is known as superposition. Qubit has another originated property known as quantum entanglement. Because of this phenomenon qubits are always stayed in pairs.
As the qubits have these two properties, quantum superposition, and quantum entanglement, so the quantum computer needs only eight qubits to illustrate each number between 0 and 255 at the same time. So it can be said that a few entangled qubits are enough to represent all the atoms situated in this universe.
Thus quantum computers can beat other computers. There are a large number of combinations that quantum computers can consider simultaneously.
But the quantum computer needs some extra precaution to work properly. They need a cool environment, a strong magnetic field, and no collision between qubits. Qubits need air-free space so that no collision occurs between them and their properties can remain. Otherwise, qubits will lose their property and we won’t get anything new like a quantum computer.
Again, the state of the qubit is changeable according to the observation, and qubits make noises when they work. So there is a huge possibility of error in the operation because of the noisy behavior of qubits.
How Does A Quantum Computer Work?
Quantum computer works, maybe good to say ‘will work’, based on quantum computing. So when comes the question of how quantum computer works, you just need to answer with quantum computing. Again, quantum computing originates with quantum bits or qubits. In a word, the quantum computer does work with qubits.
Qubits have some interesting properties. Superposition is one of them. Qubits are quite unpredictable whether they are 0 or 1. So qubits remain in an indeterminate state before measuring whether they are 0 or 1. Actually, before measuring they can be any of the states or both of the states. This situation is called superposition.
So quantum computer works on the superposition phenomenon. There is another thing that is a must in a quantum computer called quantum entanglement. Qubits have the entanglement property where qubits can communicate with each other immediately. This phenomenon is related to correlation. If one qubit of a pair or group is determined then the other one can be easily determined as they are related.
Again, qubits do not always remain in a working mood. They can work only when they are cool environment like zero temperature. But there is also a problem with the qubit’s working process. They can not work for a long time even if you keep them in a supercooled environment.
Because of the phenomena and restrictions, it becomes quite difficult to program for quantum computers. The programs’ execution has to be fast enough so that the functionality of the qubit doesn’t disappear. So all these things are quite enough to confuse anyone without further discussion. So let’s go for a deeper discussion.
The main secret of quantum computers lies in the extra state of qubits. As qubit can lie in 0 or 1 even in 01 states, not only in two states, so the speed of any computer can be increased exponentially through these three states in developers’ programming structure. Again, we can find the qubits in all possible states when they are not under observation. That’s known as qubit’s superposition characteristic. These states are called in together a ‘spinning state’. This spinning state has three names. They are up(1), down(0), and both.
The qubits have the capability of influencing each other through quantum entanglement even when they are not in touch. In the case of quantum particles, they show two different features regarding our observation. When we observe them, they act as a particle. But when we don’t observe them, they act as a wave. Actually, they( quantum particles/qubits) are neither particles nor waves. Actually, they remain as the probability of their all possible state. We call them the wave function. So wave function is a combination of particle and wave. But when we observe them in our macroscopic eye, the wave function is collapsed and we only see the wave part.
In quantum computers, they use qubits and simulate the behaviors of the quantum particles through qubits. As a result, the speed and capability of the quantum computer increase exponentially. As an example, we can take a spinning coin. When a coin spins, it remains in both states, head, and tail. So the quantum computer’s qubit can work in the spinning state and can bring the result as fast as possible. When there is an equal possibility of occurrence of some states, the qubits go to those every state and calculate the result without waiting for the end of the occurrence using superposition and entanglement phenomena. As a result, the quantum computer gets the fastest speed and capacity.
The dream of making a quantum computer is almost ready. Google, IBM, and Intel are working on this purpose and they are quite successful in making the quantum chips. But they are in the trial procedure. So having a quantum computer in the future is quite obvious for us. Through these computers, we will get some unsolved answers, heavy simulation, artificial intelligence, and much more technology as well.
So it is quite relevant to know about quantum computers thoroughly. By reading this article you can have a crystal clear view and knowledge of quantum computers. So let’s take a look inside it. I am hoping that you will enjoy it. Thanks a lot for visiting our page.