The motherboard of your desktop or laptop may look chaotic at your first glance and you may give up on understanding it. But if you learn about the different parts of the motherboard separately, it is not impractical for you to replace the internal components of the computer on your own.
If you want to identify easily all the slots of a motherboard, you have arrived at the right corner of Google. This article is equipped with different components and slots of a motherboard with their functions explained.
Parts of a Motherboard and Their Functions
As the different types of motherboards are the junction of communication of all other key-components, knowing the motherboard components means knowing your computer. Here we have mentioned and explained the main components and slots of a motherboard.
CPU is the brain of a computer, where fetching, decoding, and execution of program occurs. Also, it is referred to as a processor or microprocessor. The processor chip is classified by the name of the manufacturer and the type of processor.
Intel 386, Intel Core 2Duo, iCore7, etc. are the examples of the CPU chip. The sockets are marked by Socket 1-8 or LGA 775. You can find out the processor chip adaptable with the CPU socket given the motherboard.
Generally, computers consist of 2-4 memory slots. Random Access Memory stores the mobile data temporarily to improve system speed while working. So, at any instance, if the processor requires any data of active programs, it doesn’t have to search the hard disk.
It is different from other hard disks or flash drives as it loses data once the power is off. SDRAM, DDR for desktop, and SDIMM for the laptop are common types of RAM.
The Basic Input or Output is a read-only type memory and is an interface between hardware and software. It is also called the device-driver or simply driver. The code required to operate the keyboard, display, mouse, and other functions of input and output are loaded in the BIOS.
It is stored on a ROM chip which is used while booting and prepare to operate the hardware. ROM is mounted separately from the main system memory on the mainboard. Unlike RAM, ROM is capable to retain its content even during a power outage.
The Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor RAM chips store information of PC configuration like date and time, RAM size, Power saving settings, plug and play information, etc. These chips are powered by a CMOS battery even when the power is turned off.
So, the pc does not require any reconfiguration every time while turning on. To reset BIOS when an update is failed and RAM is excessively overlocked, these batteries can be removed.
The computer cache memory is a tiny block of RAM which improves pc functioning. This is done by loading in advance the information from the main memory and passing it to the CPU.
The internal cache memory of the CPU is called Level 1 primary cache memory. The external cache memory is called level 2 cache memory which supplements the level 1 cache. There is a level 3 cache memory in modern computers which is implemented outside the processor die. In these computers, L1 and L3 cache memory is mounted into the die.
The expansion bus works as an in/out path from the processor to the peripherals. It consists of a series of slots on the system board where expansions boards are plugged in. Using expansion buses users can slot adapter cards and add additional features to the computer according to their wish. The most common expansion slots are discussed below.
The Peripheral Component Interconnect slots are crucial as they allow to install extra add-on cards on the system board. It is designed to support 64 bit and high-speed buses. In the latest type of motherboards along with PCI slots, PCI Express slots are used which supports full-duplex serial buses. This allows high-speed gaming display cards.
Industry Standard Architecture slots are 16-bit buses. These slots are the oldest type and were used in AT motherboards. these are used to install conventional sound or display cards.
The full form of AGP is Accelerated Graphics port and its functionality can be spotted in its name. it runs on 32 -bit bus and is featured to install the latest graphics cards. These slots assist the gamer to get the latest gaming display cards.
Power connectors help to supply power to the whole computer. They collect power from SMPS. AT type power connector was seen in older motherboards and has 2 number of 6 male connectors. The latest motherboards use ATX connectors which consist of 20 or 24 pin female connectors.
IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) connectors are featured with two type connectors. The 40 pin male-type connectors are designed to interface hard disk drives. And the 34-pin male type connectors link to the floppy disk drive.
SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) connectors are the latest type of connectors that are faster than the IDE connectors. They are normally 7-pin connectors designed to link to the latest SATA hard disks or optical drives.
Along with the main processor, there is a co-processor. It assists the main CPU in graphics and large mathematical calculations.
The motherboard consists of many connectors that are used to connect to the cabinet in which the motherboard is installed. Power switch, front audio, LED, Reset-switch, USB, etc. are examples. Some motherboard has Parallel ports which are used to connect old type of printers. They are designed with multiple wires to send and get multiple bits of data instantly. The parallel ports use a 25-pin female DB connector.
The chipsets coordinate the data flow between CPU, memory, cache, and other main components of a computer. They control the data flow between IDE channels and other connected devices.
The NorthBridge chipset is a memory controller as controls the data flow between CPU and RAM. For its graphic and memory controller hub, sometimes it is called GMCH.
The SouthBridge chipset is an expansion or in/out controller. It is used to control data flow between slower peripherals.
The efficiency and durability of the key components of a computer can be reduced by improper temperature. The standard temperature of operation is 45 degrees Celsius. So, various heat sinks and cooling fans are provided on the motherboard where necessary.
There is a CPU fan mounted on the top of the CPU to pull and blow hot air off the CPU. Also, a power supply fan is given inside to cool down all the components.
The clock generator of a motherboard synchronizes the functioning of all connected components. It generates a clock signal to generate a metronome to coordinate actions.
Switches and Jumpers
There are many switches and jumper pins and caps on the motherboard. These DIP switches and jumpers help to configure the motherboard. This is done by being a regulator for voltage supply required by parts of motherboards.
It happens often that installed software is incompatible with your pc and your pc is running slow. Or if you need video editing or high-quality graphics programs, you have to upgrade the internal parts of your computer.
To replace the components on your own you need to know different parts of a motherboard as it is the junction and control point of all other numerous major and crucial parts. learn about the parts of a motherboard of your laptop or desktop from all the discussions provided so far.